Czy Polska jest zbyt uzależniona od węgla?

Obecna struktura energetyczna Polski nie wygląda korzystnie. Ponad 80% energii zużywanej w naszym kraju pochodzi z węgla kamiennego i brunatnego. To pozwala stwierdzić, że obecnie Polska jest zbyt uzależniona od węgla, który jest nieodnawialnym źródłem energii. Tak wysoki procent nie wypada także dobrze na tle innych krajów Unii Europejskiej.

Ogromne zasoby węgla

Co zatem doprowadziło do obecnej sytuacji energetycznej Polski? Przede wszystkim ogromne zasoby węgla. Ówczesne władze komunistyczne wybrały najprostszą metodę, która nie wymagała importu zaawansowanych technologii. Zasoby węgla wydawały się ogromne, a nikt z rządzących widocznie nie myślał przyszłościowo. W zeszłym wieku powstało w Polsce wiele elektrowni węglowych, podczas gdy w niemal całej Europie budowano także elektrownie jądrowe, które w niektórych krajach (np. we Francji) odpowiadają za ponad połowę wytwarzanej energii. Państwa europejskie dywersyfikowały w ten sposób swoje źródła energii. Sytuację naszego kraju pogorszyła katastrofa elektrowni jądrowej w Czarnobylu w 1986 roku. Przez wiele lat po tym wydarzeniu jakiekolwiek plany spaliły na panewce, gdyż Polacy obawiali się elektrowni atomowych w sąsiedztwie. Obawy te jednak były przesadzone, bo w niedalekiej odległości od polskich granic i tak pracowało kilka elektrowni jądrowych. W XXI wieku Polska nadal nie rozpoczęto budowy tego typu obiektu, podczas gdy niektóre kraje w Europie myślą już o ich zamknięciu.

Problematyczny węgiel

Energia pochodząca z węgla stanowi problem, gdyż jest nieodnawialna i nieekologiczna, choć warto dodać, że współcześnie używane filtry w znacznym stopniu ograniczają zatrucie powietrza. Węgiel zużywany w naszych elektrowniach pochodzi jednak głównie z Polski, a to prowadzi do degradacji środowiska. Nie można przecież zapomnieć, że zasoby tego surowca powoli się wyczerpują, przez co za kilkadziesiąt lat jedynym wyjściem z tej sytuacji pozostanie importowanie węgla. Patrząc globalnie, stosowanie węgla i tak oznacza zniszczenie środowiska w którymś miejscu na Ziemi.

Problemem Polski nie jest jednak tylko środowisko, ale także brak dywersyfikacji źródeł energii. Odpowiednie zróżnicowanie tych źródeł jest kluczem do zapewnienia naszemu krajowi bezpieczeństwa energetycznego.  Jak wspomniano wyżej, zasoby węgla w Polsce powoli się wyczerpują. To sprawia, że Polska będzie zmuszona do zmiany sposobu pozyskiwania energii. Obecnie najrozsądniejszym wyjściem jest stawianie na nieodnawialne źródła energii.  Należy mieć jednak na uwadze, że budowa takich obiektów sporo kosztuje. Warto jednak zainwestować te pieniądze ze względu na niski koszt eksploatacji. Z pewnością należy się również zastanowić nad budową elektrowni jądrowej, która w mogłaby znacząco uniezależnić Polskę od węgla.

Przyszłość leży w naszych rękach

Istnieją przesłanki, które pozwalają z umiarkowanym optymizmem patrzeć w przyszłość. Obecnie ponad 10% używanej w Polsce energii pochodzi ze źródeł odnawialnych, co pozwala wierzyć, że nasz kraj osiągnie zakładane przez Unię Europejską 15% w 2020 roku. Może się okazać, że wyczerpujące się zasoby węgla w naszym kraju zmuszą rządzących do inwestycji w zieloną energię. Dotacje z UE mogą zaś przekonać indywidualne gospodarstwa domowe do montowania m.in. paneli fotowoltaicznych.

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